Apr 14, 2009

The development of doctrine on the allergy

The development of doctrine on the allergy was currently one of the most important areas of modern medicine. The reason for the close attention of all medical specialties to the problem of allergies is the first of all increase of allergic diseases worldwide.

Among the various factors affecting the growth allergic disease, there has been an increasing use of various vaccines and medicines, especially antibiotics.

The study of allergies caused by the drug, substance, the words which are morphological changes of the blood, led to the development of a new branch of Allergy - immunological, which is now also growing rapidly. The emergence of trombone and leukemia under the influence of certain drugs is an example immunological disease.

Another factor contributing to the increase in allergic diseases is the production of synthetic materials, paints, solvents and other chemical compounds. The decline of infectious disease is accompanied by increased allergic disease in relation to non-communicable allergens - pollen of plants, animals hypoallergenic, various bacteria and fungi.

Allergic form of bronchial asthma, urticaria, edema caused by different localization in a variety of substances, allergens, the study of the nature of which way to malicious actions of prevention and treatment of the contents of the most important part of modern clinical allergology. Prevention of these diseases requires the production of many specialized products from pollen of plants, products, skin animals, fungi, as well as therapeutic serums, etc. Production of these products are many companies, mills and factories in many countries around the world. Thus evolved the technical or production, allergically.

Along with the increase of allergic diseases caused by different allergens from the external environment, the attention of physicians of various specialties attract allergic diseases caused by allergens, resulting in the sick organism. These diseases are called hypoallergenic or auto allergicaally. These include diseases like collagen (rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, nodular periarteritis, scleroderma, etc.), lymphoid goiter Hashimoto, autoallergicheskie neuropathy, demieliniziruyuschie diseases of the nervous system, etc.

At the core of both exo as well as endo allergic diseases caused by the same general pattern of development of disease. Moreover, the current distinction between the two groups of allergic diseases are increasingly blurred.

The question of the place and importance of allergy medicine highlights the different, and so far can not give preference to a very common point of view. Among the wide diversity of views appropriate to the two extreme positions. And both of these views, we think, do not express correct understanding of the issue. According to the first point of view of the teachings of the allergy and its place in medicine is widely understood. It is clear that such an interpretation of the phenomena of allergy is not conducive to the scientific study of the mechanisms of allergic reactions and ways of treatment of allergic diseases. In fact, allergic diseases are based on immunological mechanisms and has, therefore, represent a disease with such a mechanism for the emergence and development, for which the required special methods of investigation, and for allergic diseases - a special therapy techniques.

Another extreme view is that the allergic reactions and diseases tend to consider only the type of disease anaphylactic shocks, serum sickness, bronchial asthma, urticaria and edema Kvinke. Undoubtedly, this view is to assess the role of allergic reactions to medicine also untrue. Modern allergy, as evidenced by the international congresses, numerous conferences and symposiums bring together in terms of the mechanism of development in the group of allergic diseases and pathological processes such as kollagenozy different autoallergicheskie lesion type demieliniziruyuschih disease, type of skin lesions of contact dermatitis, the processes of transplant rejection and many others.

Common and unifying all these diseases is the immunologic mechanism of their development, the role of various etiological allergens and aggressive, damaged the role of antibodies or cell number in lymphoid cells and tissues in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.

Phenomena autoimmunity and auto allergic were first described after II Mechnikov, studied in rabbits of antibodies in relation to their own sperm and erythrocytes. This line of research developed in the future in the immunology section, called the doctrine of tsitotoksinah. Almost at the same time, there was the modern doctrine of allergy, and 60 years, these two trends have evolved independently. Specific cytologist now recognized as a characteristic indicators allergic alterapii cells leukocytes, fat cells, epithelium, etc.

Two directions in the study of pathological phenomena - Allergies and tsitotoksiny, arose during the II Mechnikov - together on a new basis of modern understanding of the mechanism of allergic reactions and slender was a whole.

Another no less striking example is the treatment of allergy-transplant immune reactions or transplant rejection. Medewar works and other scientists found that the processes of transplant rejection is an allergic reaction cell type that has all the features of allergic reactions in this group. Individual lymphocytes are carriers of the reaction of the recipient immune response to antigenic substances neprizhivlyaemogo transplant. The phenomenon of transplant immunity on the merits of his chapter presents the general doctrine of delayed-type allergic reactions.

Thus, the success of modern allergology allowed to see the allergic mechanisms, where previously they were not noticed. This fact alone greatly expands the range of diseases with allergic mechanism and, consequently, the role and importance of allergy medicine.

At the same time, Allergies - no longer «boundless sea» (VI Talalaev) incomprehensible and unrelated phenomena. The modern doctrine of allergy - a strong system knowledge of the mechanisms of many phenomena not previously studied, the substance of the ignorance which hide under different names intricate.

It is now possible to imagine the following main forms of participation in the processes of allergic diseases.

1. Actually allergic disease. Among them, we propose to allocate a group of true allergic diseases, as opposed to the so-called false allergic diseases like allergic changes in the organs and tissues, but not in the main immunologic mechanism, typical of the true allergic diseases.

2. The diseases in which allergy is involved as a compulsory component in the pathogenesis of the main pathological process (tuberculosis, brucellosis, rheumatism, etc.).

3. Diseases in which the allergy is not a mandatory component of the pathogenesis of the basic pathological process, but also participates as one of the mechanisms that influence the course of main disease or its complications (hypertension, peptic ulcer disease, etc.).

Study on allergy appeared in the clinic (Pirguet, 1906). Clinical aspects of studying this problem are important to uncover the many sides of pathogenesis of allergic diseases. It should be borne in mind that it is a satisfactory model of human allergic diseases has not been able to create. Anaphylactic bronchial spasm guinea pigs plays only a small part of the complex processes that characterize the attack of bronchial asthma. Experimental contact dermatitis in guinea pigs caused by simple chemical compounds (parafenilendiamin, sulfanilamide, novocaine, etc.) and does not constitute a full picture of contact dermatitis and other allergic manifestations caused by these substances in humans. We do not have a complete model of most autoallergicheskih disease. The difficulty in modeling human allergic diseases is due primarily to species and genetic characteristics of human body with a very complex antigenic structure of tissues, as well as a number of peculiarities in the properties and mechanism of formation globulinovyh fractions of blood serum. The latter circumstance is connected with the question of the existence of human allergic antibodies specific - reagin, which reproduce in animals is also completely fail.

At the same time, modern ideas about the mechanisms of allergic reactions have so far on the basis of experimental study of anaphylaxis and allergy. Therefore, the experimental understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases are currently the data on which the doctrine of allergy.

Opening of anaphylaxis in dogs (Richet, Portier, 1902) and guinea pigs (GP Sakharov, 1905) soon led to a very great interest among Russian researchers, and soon a lot of work, covering the different parties to re-open mechanism of the phenomenon.

AM Bezredka (1907) in the laboratory of I. I. Mechnikov held a series of critical studies on anaphylaxis and antianafilaksii. The method of specific desensitization, open and developed by AM Bezredkoy, has found wide application in modern medicine.

If we try to identify the main areas of study of anaphylaxis and allergy in our country in the past and now, we can identify the following main lines of research.

1. Study of allergic reactions in comparative and evolutionary aspects (NN Sirotinin, IL Krichevsky, A. Gordienko).

2. Pathophysiological mechanisms of anaphylactic shock and allergic alteration of organs and tissues (D. Alpern, A. Bogomolets, AM Chornukhi, A. Kravchenko, AM Melik-Megrabov, N. Sirotinin etc. .).

3. Pathomorphologic expression of allergic reactions (A. Abrikosov, J. Давыдовский, MA Skvortsov, AI Strukov).

4. Allergic component with Infectious Diseases (N. Sirotinin, PF Zdrodovsky, IL Bogdanov, N. Beklemishev).

5. Study of Allergy and autoallergii in the clinic and in experiment (MP Konchalovsky, ND Strazhesko, AI Nesterov, EM packaging, PK Bulatov, VI Ioffe, N. S. bucket, M. Zheltakov and many others).

Under the leadership of N. Sirotinina in Kiev for the first time in our country was established for the production of allergy diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases.

An important focus of study of the pathogenesis of allergic reactions, studies of allergen irritants as the various divisions of the nervous system: nerve endings, nerve agents, nerve centers, and other excitable tissues (AD Ado, 1938, 1940, 1947, 1952; AN Gordienko, 1948 , 1949, 1961). Research activities as allergens and other irritants holinnergicheskih innervatsionnyh devices led to a revision of the role of histamine as a universal bridge mechanism in all types of allergic reactions. The development of this trend is continuing now in many laboratories abroad.

A successful fight against allergic diseases, and especially the prevention of allergic disease, it is required by examining the relationship between the spread of allergic diseases and the complex factors that determine the conditions of living, working and living in various areas.

In domestic and foreign literature in recent years are increasing reports of high specific weight of allergic diseases in total morbidity.

World Health Organization annually publishes data on the incidence of people of different countries, chronic and infectious diseases. Incidence of the population of several countries of asthma more than common diseases such as malignant tumors, pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism, polio. Thus, the United States took first place in the world by number of patients with bronchial asthma, while the incidence of malignant tumors is less than 7 times, and tuberculosis of the respiratory system - 120 times. In England the number of patients with asthma in 3 times more than patients with malignant diseases, and 25 times greater than patients with tuberculosis of the respiratory system. As for patients with rheumatism and polio, the number in many countries, small compared to patients with bronchial asthma.

The study of allergic disease represents a major socio-hygienic problem, the main task of which is the study of environmental factors that contribute to allergic diseases.

1 comment:

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