Drug and medical allergies - this is the second high specific immune response to the drugs or their components, accompanied by general or local clinical manifestations.
Drug allergy may occur as a complication in the treatment of a disease or an occupational disease due to prolonged contact with the drugs and medicines (with doctors, health workers, pharmacists). According to statistics, among the urban population of drug allergy occurs more often in women aged 31-40 years.
The main reasons for the development of allergies to medication:
- hereditary, caused by genetically predisposed;
- the availability of other types of allergies (bacteria, pollen, food, etc.);
- long-term use of the sick (healthy - contact) drugs, especially repeated courses;
- the use of depot preparations (for example, Bicillin);
- joint appointment of a large number of drugs from different groups ( polychromatophilia), products of metabolism which may increase the effect of other allergens;
- physico-chemical structure, the high sensitizing activity of the drug.
Allergic reactions to medications can occur, and overdose of drugs.
Almost all drugs can trigger allergic reactions. In most cases, cause allergic reactions are antibiotics, local anesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc. Once appeared, drug allergy will occur again and again with the re-admission medications.
It must be remembered that the possibility of an allergic reaction is required the period of sensebilization, which differs for different allergens, depending on the reactivity of the organism. On average it takes between 7-10 days. Just allergies to medicines developed from a few seconds to several hours and can provoke severe reactions such as anaphylactic shock, bronchial asthma attack, hives, swelling Kvinke, as well as conjunctivitis and allergic rhinitis, etc. One of the most severe manifestations of drug allergy - anaphylactic shock resulting sharp decline in blood pressure - is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate assistance.
Clinical form (on the location and involvement of organs and systems) Generalized:
- anaphylactic shock;
- serum sickness (cutaneous form of Abdominal drug allergies);
- generalized vasculitis in combination with other lesions.
Localized (organ or system):
- skin lesions;
- toksikodermii defeat internal organs (Layella syndrome, Stevens-Johnson);
- hematologic lesions;
- visceral (internal organs);
- mucous membranes and respiratory system;
- nervous system.
In order to prevent drug allergies should observe the following rules:
- Remember, even better - write the name of the drug, causing allergic manifestations;
- to prevent health care workers about the reactions to those or other drugs;
- before taking unfamiliar medication, consult with your doctor